SUBSIDENCE – A MAJOR EFFECT OF COAL MINING IN RANIGANJ COALFIELD
- Subsidence, Fire , Rehabilitation Technologies
Copyright (c) 2018 IJRDO - Journal of Business Management (ISSN: 2455-6661)
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License.
Coal, the most important fossil fuel in India is vital for industrial growth. It is India's least costsource of primary energy and currently meets two-thirds of the country's energyneeds.
The state of West Bengal has rich deposits of coal and, accounting for about half of India's total Over 240 years coal is being produced from Bengal which has major consequences on the environment.
Un-scientific, unsystematic and illegal mining are the primary causes of fires resulting into subsidence in large part of Raniganj coalfield area.
Intensive mining activities during the past by over thousand small fragmented mines have created many complexity for future development. Coal, which are left as safety pillars and ribs during the course of extraction (mining) in old workings and abandoned mines, catches fires due to spontaneous combustion and gets further aggravated due to illegal mining ,resulting into subsidence. Mining-induced subsidence, cause horizontal and vertical movements in the land surface, and open cracks and fissures that serve as inlets for oxygen, which in turn aggravate the problem of coal fires. These inter-related phenomena often render the mining areas unfit for human inhabitation
The population living in the old mining areas has increased many times over the years, though these areas became unsafe for habitation. With gradual industrialisaton in this area ,haphazard and unplanned growth of surface construction have emerged .Over 4400 million tones of valuable coal reserve lie below such townships which will affect future mining operation
The study is related to Subsidence and its effect occurred due to coal mining operations in Ranganj Coalfield area for centuries.
2) Banerjee, S.P (2007), Land Reclamation in Mined Areas. National workshop on environmental management of mining operation in India- a status paper.February, Varanasi, pp.63-73.
3) Bose, A.K.andB.Singh. (1989). “Environmental Problem in coal Mining areas, Impact assessment and Management strategies- case
study in India”: vol-4, pp.243
4) Briggs, (2009), Mining Subsidence, Arnold andCo. London. pp. 215
5) Bryson, N.1986. “The future of coal production”:International Mining, Vol–3, No- 8
6)Coal Ministry Report 2010 Chapter 9 p.57&58
7) Chari, K.S.R. (1989), Report of the Committee on Restoration of Abandoned Coal Mines, Sept.
8) CMPDI Survey Report, 2012.p-12
9) Chadwick, M.J. (2007), Environmental impacts of coal mining and utilization, Pergamon, OUP,
10) CMRS Annual Report, India-2012 17) Coal India Annual report-2012 p-120
11) Dhar, B.B. (2000), Environmental impact and abatement of noise pollution. National Workshop on environmental management of mining operation, Varanasi, India. pp. 168-204
12)) DGMS Report of 2007
13) Gupta Anup Krishna Two Decades of Eastern Coalfields p,108 &109’ published in 1995 by ECL).
14) Singh Ramesh P &Ram N.Yadav Research paper Prediction of subsidence due to coal mining in Raniganj coalfield, West Bengal, India Engineering Geology Volume 39, Issues 1–2, May 1995, Pages 103-111
15) SINGH R. P. &R. N. YADAV Subsidence due to coal mining in India • January 1995
16)Singh .S.N ECL Article Environment of ECL p 78 ,79,80 81 of book coal Industry in the 20th century Published by BCCL Sept 1999