Iqbāl's Position on Western Civilization

  • Professor Dr Salahuddin Bin Mohd Shamsud Professor of Islamic Literature, Faculty of Arabic Language, University Islam Sultan Sharif Ali, Brunei Darussalam.
Keywords: Iqbāl's Position on the West, Elements of Western civilization,, Western system of education,, Materialism, Socialism, Communism, Democracy


This research deals with Muhammad Iqbāl's position on the Western civilization, communism and capitalism. Iqbāl believes that the social origins offered by Islam can be the best way to unite the humanity, and then deals with his position on the westernization movements in the East means politeness and education of Islamic countries on the Western approach called by ᾽Abu Ṭālib Khān in India and Rifa῾a Al-Ṭaḥṭāwī in Egypt, each of them was pioneers of westernization, carrying the same message. It was then called by Sayyid ᾽Aḥmad Khān, the first pioneer of westernization in the modern history of India's Islamic entity, then by his colleague Sayyid Charāgh ῾Alī, then the character of Sayyid Mumtāz ῾Alī appeared who had been calling for the reformation and women's liberation in his magazine: "Women's Politeness" since 1878, as well as he called for full equality between the men and women in his book: "Women's Rights", and then there were many personalities and multiple schools of thought. Aim of this research is to focus on the character of Muhammad Iqbāl who played a prominent role in the development of Islamic thought in modern India, who was afraid that the call for the westernization in the East could be a ploy to imitate the West, so he criticized Kamal Ataturk in a style of harsh criticism. He addressed the material Western civilization in his poetry, and studied the Western education system and its consequences in modern schools as the education was an essential part of human civilization.


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Refer to the introduction to the book (A talk to the West) by Sheikh ᾽Abu Al-Ḥasan ῾Alī Nadwī, pp. 1-5

Refer to Rawā’i῾ Iqbāl by Sheikh ᾽Abu Al-Ḥasan ῾Alī Nadwī, pp. 80-81

Muḥammad Iqbāl. Reconstruction of Religious Thoughts in Islam, p. 214

Toms Huxley (1825-1859) is an English philosopher of the most famous evolutionary theory and applied to man before Darwin in his book (Man’s Place in Nature.

Muḥammad Iqbāl. Reconstruction of Religious Thoughts in Islam, p. 216

Muḥammad Iqbāl. Jāvid Nāmāh, p. 69

Refer to (Shakhṣiyyāt) by Sayyid ’Abu al-A‘lā Mawdūdī, pp. 211-212

Muḥammad Iqbāl. Reconstruction of Religious Thoughts in Islam, pp. 216-217

Muḥammad Iqbāl. Bāl -e- Gabriel, p. 88

Muḥammad Iqbāl. Ḍarb -e- Kalīm. p. 51

Ibid. p. 105

Ibid. p. 117

Ibid. p. 52

Ibid. p. 7

Ibid. p.52

Ibid. 98-99

Muḥammad Iqbāl. Mathnawī Pas Che Bᾱyad Kard, p. 41

Ibid. P. 42

Ḍarb -e- Kalīm. p. 99

Bāl -e- Gabriel. p. 105

Ibid. p. 87

Muḥammad Iqbāl. Bᾱng -e- Darᾱ. p. 158

Ibid. p. 188

Bᾱng -e- Darᾱ. pp. 188-189

Ibid. p. 188

Bᾱl -e- Gabriel. p. 36

Ibid. p. 10

Ibid. p. 24

Ḍarb -e- Kalīm. p.50

Ibid. p. 57

Ibid. p: 58

Ibid. P. 61

Bāl-e- Gabriel: 37

Jāvid Nᾱmāh, p. 237

Ḍarb -e- Kalīm. p. 60

Ibid. P. 24

Ibid. P. 24

Ibid. p. 43

῾Abdul Wᾱḥid. (September-1977). Read the article entitled: Iqbāl and the West, which has been published in the Urdu magazine (Māh-e-Naw) a special issue on Muḥammad Iqbāl.

How to Cite
Shamsud, P. D. S. B. M. (2021). Iqbāl’s Position on Western Civilization. IJRDO - Journal of Social Science and Humanities Research , 6(5), 26-37.