AWARENESS OF FACTORS RESPONSIBLE FOR VESICOVAGINAL FISTULA AMONG HAUSA WOMEN IN NIGERIA
- Factors Responsible,
- Vesico-vaginal fistula,
- Hausa Women
Copyright (c) 2019 IJRDO - Journal of Health Sciences and Nursing (ISSN: 2456-298X)
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License.
Vesico-vaginal fistula (VVF) has been a major health challenge with consequences on the affected women’s health physically and emotionally, as well as their financial and social status. Delivery of a baby should be a period of joy, but for more than half a million women, their pregnancy and childbirth end in death while some develop vesico vaginal fistula. Vesicovaginal fistula is an abnormal communication between the bladder and the vagina leading to continuous leakage of urine through the vagina. Little is known about the perception of pregnant women about obstetric fistula and this group of women are those who are at risk of the disease. This could increase in maternal morbidity rate and impede development goals such as Sustainable Development Goals SDGs in Nigeria.
Aim: investigate the awareness of factors responsible for vesico-vaginal fistula among Hausa women in Nigeria. Research design: The descriptive survey design was used in this study and Hausa women within or above the reproductive age bracket of 13-20 was used.
Setting: Shasha Community in Ado Local Government area, Ekiti State, Nigeria. A simple random sampling technique. Sample: 200 respondents Tool: questionnaire was used to obtain information from respondents and was subjected to validity and reliability. Data collected were analyzed using frequency and percentage and ANOVA.
Result: The study revealed that the level of awareness of Vesico vaginal fistula and its risk associative factors among Hausa women is very low. Also, the socio-economic status of Hausa women in the Hausa speaking community is very low and this has affected the level of awareness of VVF and its associative factors. In addition, several harmful practices exist in the Hausa speaking community.
Conclusion: socio-economic status of Hausa women is an important factor that could increase the level of awareness of VVF and its causative factors. it is important that the government and other NGO interested in the empowerment of women should endeavor to empower Hausa women to increase their socio-economic status in the community towards enhancing the level of awareness of VVF, and its associative factors.
- Althaus C.L., Low N., Musa E.O., Shuaib F. and Gsteiger S., (2015), Ebola virus disease outbreak in Nigeria: Transmission dynamics and rapid control, Epidemics11: 80-84, https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1755436515000341
- Amina, E. S. (2013) “Taskforce on VVF”. A paper presented at Katsina, June 7th.
- Amna A., Sirichand P. and Nadeem F., (2015), Women Perception and Awareness about Genitourinary Fistula, Liaquat Uni Med Health Science 14(03),129-132
- Black RE and Lanata CF. (2002) Epidemiology of Diarrheal Diseases in Developing Countries, in Infections of the Gastrointestinal Tract, 2nd ed. Ravdin, H. B. Greenberg, Ed. 2002. Philadelphia, Lippincott, Williams, and Wilkins.
- Blanchfield L. and Lawson M.L. (2010), The Millennium Development Goals: The September 2010 U.N. High-level Meeting, Congressional Research Service, Prepared for Members and Committees of Congress, retrieved from https://fas.org/sgp/crs/row/R41410.pdf
- Breuer E., Myer L., Struthers H., Joska J.A. (2011), HIV/AIDS and mental health research in sub-Saharan Africa: a systematic review, African Journal of AIDS Reserach, 10(2):101-22. doi: 10.2989/16085906.2011.593373.
- Daru P.H., Karshima J.A., Mikah S. , and Nyango D., (2011), The Burden of Vesico-Vaginal Fistula In North Central Nigeria,J West Afr Coll Surg. Apr-Jun; 1(2): 50–62. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4170260/
- Dairo M.D., IbrahimT.F., SalawuA.T. (2017), Prevalence and determinants of diarrhoea among infants in selected primary health centres in Kaduna north local government area, Nigeria, The Pan African Medical Journal, 2017;28:109. doi:10.11604/pamj.2017.28.109.8152
- Easterly W. (2009), How the millennium development goals are unfair to Africa. World Development, 7(1):26–5. doi:10.1016/j.worlddev.2008.02.009.
- Easterly W., (2010), Was Africa set up to fail on the Millennium Development Goals?
- Ejembi, C. (2009). “Problems Associated with VVF”. Paper presented at the National workshop on management and counseling of VVF patients, June 22 – 25 at Liyafa Hotel, Katsina.
- Erhabor O., Adias T.C and M.L. Hart (2010). Effect of falciparum malaria on the indices of anaemia among pregnant women in the Niger Delta of Nigeria. Journal of Clinical Medicine and Research, 2(3):035-041.
- Ezeonu, P.O.,Ekwedigwe, K.C., Isikhuemen, M.E., Eliboh, M.O., Onoh, R.C., Lawani, L.O., Ajah, L.O. and Dimejesi, E.I. (2017) Awareness of Obstetric Vesicovaginal Fistula among Pregnant Women in a Rural Hospital. Advances in Reproductive Sciences, 5, 39-46. https://doi.org/10.4236/arsci.2017.53005
- Harrison KA. (1985), Child-bearing, health, and social priorities: a survey of 22,774 consecutive deliveries in Zaria, northern Nigeria. Br J Obstet Gynaecol;92(suppl):1-119.
- Ibrahim M, Odoemena D, Ibrahim M. (2000), Intestinal helminthic infestations among primary school children in Sokoto. Sahel Med J. 2000; 3(2):65-68. http://www.smjonline.org/article.asp?issn=1118-8561;year=2000;volume=3;issue=2;spage=65;epage=68;aulast=Ibrahim;type=0
- Hassan, A. (2013). “VVF A Scourage that refuse to go”. New Nigeria on Sunday 20th, pp. 16 – 17.
- Hassan MA, and Ekele BA. (2009), Vesico vaginal fistula: Do he patients know the cause? Ann Afro med; 8(2)122-6.
- Imelda, (2015) Repair of Vesico Vaginal Fistula. Report on 140 case, J. Urol 89, 220, 231
- Isiah, (2016) “Women’s Health across age and frontier (WHO) Switzerland page 11 – 16.Johnson, K. (2007). Incontinence in Malawi: Analysis of proxy measure ofVaginal fistula in national survey. International Journal of Gynecology andObstetrics 3,9.
- Jenavine O. Mbah, Njoku O. O, Agwu U. Nnachi, Ijem A. Nnachi, Amacchi J. Nwinyimagu (2015). Incidence of antenatal malaria parasitaemia and the effects on the haemoglobin profile of the pregnant women in Enugu East Local Government Area, Enugu, Nigeria. American Journal of Epidemiology and Infectious Disease, 3(5): 88-94
- Kasamba N., Kaye D., and Mbalinda S., (2013), Community awareness about risk factors, presentation and prevention and obstetric fistula in Nabitovu village, Iganga district, Uganda, BMC Pregnancy Childbirth. 2013; 13: 229. doi: 10.1186/1471-2393-13-229
- Kees, W. (2007). Step – by – Step Surgery of Vesico Vaginal Fistulae, Thomas Color Printer
- Limited, Glasgow, Scotland.
- Kees, W. (2016).Prevalence of Obstetric Fistulae in northern Nigeria (Report). Retrieved February 3 2013 from http:// www.fistularepair .com.
- Kharsany A.B.M. and Karim Q.A., (2016), HIV Infection and AIDS in Sub-Saharan Africa: Current Status, Challenges and Opportunities, Open Aids Journal, 10: 34–48. doi: 10.2174/1874613601610010034
- Murphy M. (2008) Social Consequences of Vesico Vaginal Fistula in Northern Nigeria J.BiosocSci 13:139:150.
- Nigeria Centre for Disease Control, (2017), Ebola, Nigeria Centre for Disease Control, Abuja, Nigeria, https://ncdc.gov.ng/diseases/info/E
- Omiunu O.G. (2015), Information awareness and utilization of haematinics among pregnant women in Nigeria, Basic Research Journals, 4(10), pp 240-247, http://www.basicresearchjournals.org.
- Spurlock J. (2016), Vesicovaginal Fistula, https://emedicine.medscape.com/article/267943-overview
- Stamatakos M., Sargedi C., Stasinou T., and Kontzoglou K. (2012), Vesicovaginal Fistula: Diagnosis and Management, Indian J Surg. 76(2): 131–136. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4039689/
- Tebeu PM, de Bernis L, Boisrond L, Le Duc A, Mbassi AA, Rochat CH.(2008), Knowledge, attitude andperception about obstetric fistula by Cameroonian women. Prog Urol, 18(6):379-89.
- The Guardian (2002 September 9) Easing the scourge of VVF. Nigeria Guardian Newspapers p 7.
- The International Bank for Reconstruction and Development. The MDGs after the Crisis, The World Bank. (2010). Available from: http://siteresources.worldbank. org/ INTGLOMONREP2010/ Resources/6911301
- United Nations Population Fund UNFPA (2015). Fistula fortnight 21st Feb. – 6 March, inKatsina State.
- Waaldijk K. (2004), Immediate Management Of Fresh Obstetric Fistulae. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2004; 191(3): 795–799. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15467543
- Wall LL. 'Fitsari Dan Duniya': An African (Hausa) Praise Song About Vesico-Vaginal Fistula Obstet. Gynecol . 2002;100(2):1328–1332.
- Wall L.L., Karshima J.A., Kirschner C. and Arrowsmith S.D. (2004), The obstetric vesicovaginal fistula: Characteristics of 899 patients from Jos, Nigeria, American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology (2004) 190, 1011-1019, http://irepos.unijos.edu.ng/jspui/bitstream/123456789/755/1/The%20obstetric%20vesicovaginal%20fistula.pdf