Vol 5 No 3 (2019): IJRDO - Journal of Business management | ISSN: 2455-6661


Published April 2, 2019
  • Employee Productivity,
  • 360 degree feedback appraisal,
  • Performance Evaluation,
  • Self-Assessment and Performance Review
How to Cite
OKEKE,M. N., ONYEKWELU, N. P., AKPUA, J., & DUNKWU C. (2019). PERFORMANCE MANAGEMENT AND EMPLOYEE PRODUCTIVITY IN SELECTED LARGE ORGANIZATIONS IN SOUTH-EAST, NIGERIA. IJRDO - Journal of Business Management (ISSN: 2455-6661), 5(3), 57-69. Retrieved from https://ijrdo.org/index.php/bm/article/view/2756


The study examinedthe effect of performance management on employee productivity using selected large organizations in South East, Nigeria. Specifically the study examined the extent to which 360 degree feedback appraisal, performance evaluation, self-assessment and performance review influence employee productivity. Relevant theoretical and empirical literatures were reviewed. The study was anchored on Equity Theory. Descriptive survey research design was adopted in this study. The population of the study was 2081 and the sample size was 366 using Taro-Yamane’s formula. Simple percentages, descriptive statistics, and Multiple Regression Analysis (MRA) were used in testing the hypotheses. Findings from the analysis showed that 360 degree feedback appraisal had a significant influence on employee productivity, performance evaluation had a significant effect on employee productivity, Self-assessment had no significant influence on employee productivity and performance review had a significant effect on employee productivity. Based on the findings, the study concluded that performance management has significant effect on employee productivity in the Nigeria banking industry. The study recommended that organizations should lay emphasis on 360 degree feedback appraisal since it was found to have significant relationship with employee productivity.Performance evaluation should be based on job description given to the employees. Organizations should pay adequate attention, monitor and lay emphases on self-assessment system in order to improve employee productivity.


Download data is not yet available.


  1. Abu-Doleh, J. & Weir, D. (2007). Dimensions of performance appraisal systems in Jordanian private and public organizations. International Journal of Human Resource Management, 18(1), 75-84.
  2. Adams, J. S. (1963). Towards an understanding of inequity. Journal of Abnormal and Social Psychology, 67, 422-436.
  3. Agbolade, O. K., &Sotunde, O.A (2011). Goal setting and performance appraisal in public sector of Nigeria. An empirical investigation. E3 Journal of Business Management and economics, 2(3),16-124.
  4. Ahmad, M. S. (2012). Impact of employee culture on performance management practices in Pakistan. Business Intelligence Journal, 5(1) 50 – 55.
  5. Aguinis, H. (2007). Performance management. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey: Pearson Aguinis, H. (2009). Performance management. Upper Saddle River, N.J.: Pearson Prentice Hall.
  6. Armstrong, M. (2001), A handbook of human resource management practice. London: Kogan Page.
  7. Armstrong, M. (2006). Human Resource Management Practice. Landon and Philadelphia. Kogan Page Ltd.
  8. Armstrong, M. (2009). Armstrong's handbook of human resource management practice. London: Kogan Page.
  9. Antonioni, D. (1994). Improve the management process before discontinuing performance appraisal. Compensation and Benefits Review, 29.
  10. Atwater, L., Waldman, C., &Ostroff, C. (2005). Self-agreement: comparing its relationship with performance in the US and Europ. International Journal of Selection and Assessment, 13, 25-40.
  11. Ayandele, I. A. &Isichei, E. E. (2013). Performance management system and employee job commitment: An empirical study of selected listed companies in Nigeria. International Journal of Management, 2(1) 1 – 13.
  12. Barnard, M. (2003). The impact of performance management in organization. Journal of Business Management and economics. 2 (3), 124-130.
  13. Carter, M. (2005), Organizational performance management, evaluating and improving organizations authenticity consulting, LLC. Inch Publications.
  14. Chompukum, P. (2006). Performance management effectiveness in Thai banking industry: A look from performers and a role of interactional justice. Journal of International Business and Cultural Studies, 3(4), 1 – 22.
  15. Cokins, G. (2004). Performance management: Finding the missing pieces and closing the intelligence gap: Australia: John Wiley and Sons.
  16. DeNisi, A. & Pritchard, R. (2006). Performance appraisal, performance management, and improving individual performance: A motivational framework. Management and Organization Review, 2(2), 253-277
  17. DiMaggio, P. J., & Powell, W. W. (1983). The iron cage revisited: Institutional isomorphism and collective rationality in organizational fields. Am. Sociol. Rev. 48(2), 147–160.
  18. Farheen, M. Faiza, A. & Syed, S. A. (2014). Implementation and effectiveness of performance management system in Alfalah Bank. Journal of Public Administration and Governance, 4(4) 111 – 122.
  19. Glendinning, P. (2002). Performance management: Pariah or messiah? Public Personnel Management, 31(20), 161-178.
  20. Edwards, M. R., &Ewen, A. J. (1996). 360-Degree Feedback: The Powerful New Model For Assessment And Performance Improvement. New York: Amacom.
  21. Farneti, F., & Guthrie, J. (2009). Productivity reporting by Australian public sector organisations: Why they report. Accounting Forum, 33, 89–98.
  22. Festing, M. &Barzantny, C. (2008). A comparative approach to performance management in France and Germany: the impact of the European and Country specific environment, European Journal of Management, 2(2), 208-227.
  23. Idemobi, E. I., &Onyeizugbe, C. (2011). Performance management as a imperative for effective performance in Delta State of Nigerian public owned organizations. Sacha Journal of Policy and Strategic studies, 1(2), 46-54.
  24. Kreither, R. (2011). Performance management evaluations in manufacturing firms. Houghton Miffin Company. Boston.
  25. Krett (2000) B. (2007). Different relationships between perceptions of developmental performance appraisal and work performance. Personnel Review, 36(3) 378-397.
  26. Lee, M. & Son, B. (1998). The effects of appraisal review content on employees: Reaction and performance. International Journal of Human Resource Management, 1, 283.
  27. Locke, E. A., Shaw. K. N., Saari, L. M., & Latham, G. P. (1981). Goal-Setting and Task Performance: 1969-1980. Psychological Bulletin, 90, 125-152.
  28. Luecke, R. (2006). Performance Management: Measure and Improve the Effectiveness of Your Employees. Boston: Harvard Business School Publishing.
  29. Maina, M. J. (2015). Effect of performance management system on employee performance: A study of food and agriculture organization. M.Sc. Researcher Thesis, Chandaria School of Business, United States International University Africa.
  30. Mark, H. (2016). Building 360 employee productivity. Ivey Business Journal, Retrieved from http://iveybusinessjournal.com/publication/building-360-employee -productivity/
  31. McNamara, C. (2006). Field guide to consulting and employee development: a collaborative and systems approach to performance, change and learning. Minneapolis: Authenticity Consulting LLC.
  32. Muhammad, S. M. (2013). Key factors in performance management: Employee point of view. Bachelor’s Thesis,Hamk University of Applied Science
  33. Mumford, A. & Gold, J. (2004). Management development strategies for action (4th edn) Chicago: Chattered Institute of Personnel and Development.
  34. Mwema, N., &Gachunga, H. G. (2014). The influence of performance appraisal on employee productivity in organizations: A case study of selected who offices in East Africa. International journal of Social Sciences and Entrepreneurship, 1(11), 1 - 13.
  35. Okumu, B. O. (2012). Effects of employee performance management practices on employee productivity in Kenya Airways. Degree in Masters of Business Administration (Aviation), School OF Business and Economics, Moi University.
  36. Oluwatosi (2015). The impact of performance management on productivity of public sector organizations. International journal of Social Sciences, 1(11), 1 - 13.
  37. Nadeem, I., Naveed, A., Zeeshan, H., Yumna, B., &Qurat-ul-ain (2013). Impact of performance appraisal on employee’s performance involving the moderating role of motivation. Arabian Journal of Business and Management Review, 3(1), 37 - 56.
  38. Pulako, K. R. (2014). Performance management in manufacturing organizations, 4th edition, New Delhi, Prentice-Hall India limited.
  39. Rajesh, K. Y. &Nishant, D. (2013). Performance management system in Maharatna Companies (A Leading Public Sector Undertaking) of India – A Case study of B.H.E.L., Bhopal (M.P.). International Letters of Social and Humanistic Sciences, 4 49 – 69
  40. Robert, A. &Tybout, M. ((2007). Performance management in the public sector: Fact or fiction? International Journal of Productivity and Performance Management, 53(3), 245-260.
  41. Roberts, G. E. (2003). Employee performance appraisal system participation: A technique that works. Public Personnel Management, 32(1), 89-98.
  42. Ruchi, M. (2012). Effective performance management system for enhancing growth. FET, ManevRacha International University, Faridabad, India.
  43. Slotje, B. (2000). What is performance management for you? The performance management Homepage. bart @p-management.com.
  44. Sudarsan, A. (2009). Performance appraisal systems: A survey of employee views. The Icfai University Journal of Employee Behavior, 3(1), 54-69.
  45. Tara, D. (2016). How would you apply the equity theory in a performance appraisal? Retrieved from http://smallbusiness.chron.com/would-apply-equity-theory-performance-appraisal-42087.html on 23rd November, 2016.
  46. Wales, T. (2013). Employee Productivity: What is it, and Why Does it Matter? Review of Enterprise and Management Studies, 1(1) 38 - 49
  47. Walker, R. M., Damanpour, F., &Devece, C. A. (2010). Management innovation and employee performance: The mediating effect of performance management. Journal of Public Administration Research and Theory, 21, 367 - 386.
  48. Zhang, Y. Y. (2012). The impact of performance management on employee performance. MSC Thesis, University of China.