The Victorians’ Opioid Epidemic
They had one at home. They caused one in China. And, they spawned mono-economies in Afghanistan, corruption in the ports, and vast networks of shipping, financing, and service companies all founded on the medicinal properties, but above all, the miraculously addictive properties of opium (Diniejko, 2002).
Victorians of the British Empire had their own opioid epidemic and opium trading of truly global extent, with repercussions that persist even into our own times.
Aikens, Kristina. A Pharmacy of Her Own: Victorian Women and the Figure of the Opiate. Ann Arbor, MI: ProQuest, 2008.
Crane, Louis. (2011) Drugs in Victorian England. Wellcome Collection. https://wellcomecollection.org/articles/drugs-in-victorian-britain/
Diniejko, Dandrzej. (2002) Victorian Drug Use. The Victorian Web. http://www.victorianweb.org/victorian/science/addiction/addiction2.html
Foxcroft, Louise. The Making of Addiction: The 'Use and Abuse' of Opium in Nineteenth-Century Britain. Burlington, VT: Ashgate Publishing Company, 2007.
Hodgson, Barbara. In the Arms of Morpheus: The Tragic History of Morphine, Laudanum and Opium and Patent Medicines. Vancouver: Greystone Books Ltd, 2001.
Office of the Historian. (N.D.) The Opening to China Part II: The Second Opium War, the United States, and the Treaty of Tianjin, 1857 – 1859). https://history.state.gov/milestones/1830-1860/china-2
Roblin, Sebastien. (2016). “The Opium Wars: The Bloody Conflicts that Destroyed Imperial China” The National Interest. http://nationalinterest.org/blog/the-buzz/the-opium-wars-the-bloody-conflicts-destroyed-imperial-china-17212
Trocki, Carl A. Opium and Empire: Chinese Society in Colonial Singapore, 1800-1910. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press. 1990.
Tromp, Marlene. Altered States: Sex, Nation, Drugs, and Self-Transformation in Victorian Spiritualism. Albany: State of New York University Press, 2006.
Wilde, Oscar. The Complete Works of Oscar Wilde. New Lanark: Geddes & Grosset, 2001.
Wohl, Anthony S. Endangered Lives: Public Health in Victorian Britain. Cambridge: Harvard Uuniversity Press, 1983.
Copyright (c) 2018 IJRDO - Journal of Social Science and Humanities Research (ISSN: 2456-2971)
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License.
Author(s) and co-author(s) jointly and severally represent and warrant that the Article is original with the author(s) and does not infringe any copyright or violate any other right of any third parties, and that the Article has not been published elsewhere. Author(s) agree to the terms that the IJRDO Journal will have the full right to remove the published article on any misconduct found in the published article.