The Santhal: Socio-Economic Miserable Condition and Quality of Life (An Overview of Bantali Rakhasahi Village, Mayurbhanj District, Odisha)

  • SMROOTI PRAJNA PATEL Central University of Odisha, Koraput
  • Rajeswar Maharana Sambalpur University, Jyoti Vihar, Burla, Odisha
Keywords: The Santhal, Social life, Educational level, Health status, Socio-economic condition


Socio-economic condition signifies an economic and social combined total measure of a person’s work experience and of an individual’s or family’s economic and social position in relation to others; based on income, education and occupation. The tribal population is identified as the aboriginal inhabitants of our country. The Santhal are the third largest tribal communities of India after the Gond and the Bhill with a population over 4.26 million. They are largely distributed in the district of Balasore, Keonjhar, Mayurbhanj and Sundergarh of the state of Odisha. Over fifty percent of the tribal population of the Mayurbhanj district is constituted by the Santhal. The present study makes an attempt to focus on the socio-economic condition of Santhal people of Bantali Rakhasahi village of Mayurbhanj district of Odisha and is an attempt to find out the factors those affect their Socio-Economic conditions. Data have been collected by using different qualitative methods like participant observation, group discussions, interview Scheduled. Sample subjects were drawn randomly from 131Santhal households of the village. Olchiki is their mother tongue. Art, music and dance are highly prized in their culture. Their settled life has made them agricultural community as agriculture is their primary occupation. Their life is intimately connected with the forest and their economy. The community people live more or less in isolation with a very simple lifestyle. They face many problems relating to their day to day life as they are not getting healthy housing facility, proper sanitation facility, proper nutrition, safe drinking water, and other household amenities and so on. For improving their socio-economic conditions some of the basic services should adequately be provided. They need opportunities to develop their socio-economic status. There is a need to put more attention on educational aspects of scheduled tribes, where this only can motivate them for future life. The planners and policymakers have to evolve suitable strategies and formulate relevant policies to enhance tribal development.


Author Biographies

SMROOTI PRAJNA PATEL, Central University of Odisha, Koraput

Ph.D., Research Scholar, Department of Anthropology, Central University of Odisha, Koraput. 

Rajeswar Maharana, Sambalpur University, Jyoti Vihar, Burla, Odisha

Ph.D., Research Scholar, Department of Anthropology, Sambalpur University, Jyoti Vihar, Burla, Odisha.


1. Basu S. A Health Profile of Tribal India. Health for the Millions. 1994; 2: 124.
2. Census of India. Office of the Registrar General and Census Operation, Ministry of Home Affairs, Government of India, New Delhi, India. 2001.
3. Census of India. Office of the Registrar General and Census Operation, Ministry of Home Affairs, Government of India, New Delhi, India. 2011.
4. Chandana RC. Geography of Population. New Delhi: Kalyani Publishers. 1996.
5. Dung Dung K, Pattanaik BK. Lives and livelihood of tribals in Naxalite affected villages: A study in Sundergarh district of Odisha. Asian Journal of Social Sciences & Humanities. 2013; 2(4): 94-107.
6. Fried M. The Notion of Tribe. Menlo Park, CA: Cummings Publishing Company. 1975; 7.
7. Jana NC, Ghosh P K. Socio-Economic Conditions and Quality of Life in the Tribal Areas of Orissa with Special Reference to Mayurbhanj District. Space and Culture, India. 2015; 3(2): 25-41.
8. Jayakumar A, Palaniyammal P. Socio-Economic status of scheduled tribes in Kalrayan hills. Int. J. Res. Granthaalayah. 2016; 4(3): 22-30.
9. Maharana R. Educational Scenario among the Santhal Tribe of Mayurbhanj District, Odisha. ZENITH International Journal of Multidisciplinary Research. 2015; 5(10): 42-51.
10. Mareeswaran P, Jansirani R, Asokhan M, Mani K, Duraisamy MR. Participation of Tribal Women in the Developmental Programmes for their Livelihood Security. Int. J. Curr. Microbiol. App. Sci. 2017; 6(5): 2181-85.
11. Mehdi R. Structure and function of rural market in tribal Bihar in M. Prasad (ed). Tribes, their Environment and Culture. Delhi: Amar Prakashan. 1987; 256-265.
12. Patel SP. Wastage and stagnation: A hindrance to education -An Anthropological study among the High School going Children of Jujomura Block of Sambalpur District of Western Odisha. International Journal of Applied Research 2017; 3(6): 421-427.
13. Ramya T. Socio-Economic Status and Associate Problems of the Tribals: A Case Study of a Village in Kurung Kumey District of Arunachal Pradesh. Modern Research Studies: An International Journal of Humanities and Social Sciences. 2014; 1(2): 325-340.
14. Rao IMK. Marketing in Tribal economy. New Delhi: Inter India publication. 1988.
15. Seraphinus K. A Socio-Economic miserable condition of the tribals in Chhattisgarh: A case study of Dhanwar, Surguja district, C.G... IOSR Journal of Humanities and Social Science (IOSR-JHSS). 2014; 19(6): 26-29.
16. Shukla BRK and Rasogi S. Physical Anthropology and Human Genetics: An Introduction. New Delhi: Palaka Prakashan. 2008.
17. Singh KS. Identity, Ecology, Social Organisation, Economy and Linkages and Development process. New Delhi: Oxford publication. 1996.
18. Thakur DS, Thakur DC, Saini AS. Socio-Economic Impact of Tribal Development Programmes in Himachal Pradesh. Journal of Rural Development. 1991; 10: 823-30.