IJRDO - Journal of Social Science and Humanities Research (ISSN: 2456-2971) https://ijrdo.org/index.php/sshr <p>Some of the major topic includes(but not limited to) are Anthropology, Archaeology, Business Management, Business studies, Communication studies, Corporate Governance, Corporate organization, Criminology, Cross cultural, studies, Demography, Development Studies, Economics, Education, Educational Research, English, Literature, Entrepreneurship, ethics, General History, Geography, History, Human, human Tribes, Industrial relations, Information Science, International relations, International studies, Law, Legal Management, Library Science, Linguistics, literature, Local Languages, Market Management, Media studies, Music, Operational Management.<br><span style="font-size: 1.5em;"><strong> <span style="color: #fcbd0f; text-shadow: #666666 0px 0px 3px;">Current Impact Factor: 2.451</span></strong></span></p> IJRDO Journal en-US IJRDO - Journal of Social Science and Humanities Research (ISSN: 2456-2971) 2456-2971 <p>Author(s) and co-author(s)&nbsp;jointly&nbsp;and severally represent and warrant that the Article is original with the author(s) and does not infringe any&nbsp;copyright or violate any other right of any third parties, and that the Article has not been published&nbsp;elsewhere.&nbsp;Author(s) agree to the terms that the <strong>IJRDO Journal</strong> will have the full right to remove the published article on any misconduct found in the published article.</p> Landed conflict and cohabitation of communauty in Djugu Territory. The influence of superstructure upon infrastructural détermination https://ijrdo.org/index.php/sshr/article/view/3002 <p style="margin: 0px 0px 10.66px; text-align: justify; line-height: 150%; text-indent: 70.9pt;"><span lang="FR" style="margin: 0px; line-height: 150%; font-family: 'Times New Roman',serif; font-size: 12pt;">Currently, the landed conflicts intensification are being observed in Djugu territory has a history. This phenomenon actually damage the cohabitation of this communauty had his origin since the movements of migration of the population who lived in middle Africa. In this paper, we have been analyzing the landed strife which disrupted the Djugu Territory because of superstructural factors (political, juridical and ideological) upon infrastructural determination (economic).</span></p> Kumbatulu Bakulu Copyright (c) 2019 IJRDO - Journal of Social Science and Humanities Research (ISSN: 2456-2971) http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 2019-07-10 2019-07-10 4 7 01 12 The NEW INTELLIGENT TECHNOLOGIES- THE PROBLEMS AND OPPORTUNITIES https://ijrdo.org/index.php/sshr/article/view/3008 <p>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; In this paper, attention is focused on threats to people and security, which may be caused by the intelligent technologies of recent years, such as neural networks, deep learning, and artificial intelligence. In nowadays, mobile companies, social networks, various computer applications, smart devices constantly collect data for people without they know it and they are used to develop intelligent software systems to predict future behavior. One of the ways to protect citizens is to change the approach to the use of technology. At present, people do not understand the dark side of the platforms until they are involved in activities leading to personal and financial losses.</p> Dr. Rusi Marinov Copyright (c) 2019 IJRDO - Journal of Social Science and Humanities Research (ISSN: 2456-2971) http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 2019-07-10 2019-07-10 4 7 13 23 Vigne Nuove, Corviale, Laurentino 38, three utopias created in Rome https://ijrdo.org/index.php/sshr/article/view/3014 <p><span class="fontstyle0"><span style="font-family: Arial;">The article compares three major settlements to explain how the city of Rome developed during the seventies. This was a period in which Italian politics was capable of governing the country. It set precise procedures to develop town planning and supported an archetypal, architectural project, featuring large, utopian dimensions. In fact, a series of very unusual districts were constructed during those years and this article compares three of them: Corviale, Vigne Nuove and Laurentino 38. </span></span></p> <p><span class="fontstyle0"><span style="font-family: Arial;">The comparison reveals certain links between them, such as the partial or total use of béton brut; they are all considered as large, intensive constructions; the relationship created between the walkways, the accommodation and the communal spaces. However, these aspects are developed and applied differently within each of the three districts. </span></span></p> <p><span class="fontstyle0"><span style="font-family: Arial;">After an analysis of the political and historic mood of the period in which the three districts were constructed, the article tackles the relationship between these settlements by comparing not only their urban planning and architectural design, but also the details and use of the typical material of the time, such as béton brut. Politics has always been a fundamental ingredient of utopia. It began with Plato's ideal Republic, the essence of which was imbued with ethics and justice epitomising the constitution and structure of the city. In 1516, Thomas More coined the term in his Utopia, in which he criticised the monarchy in favour of a democracy based on equality without the social hierarchy found in reality. Thus, Utopia has, from its origins,represented democratic politics, with a vision of a future open to new solutions. Italian architecture has expressed and portrayed these values since the end of the nineteen sixties, and has been considered to be an expedient capable of testifying to a profoundly democratic, innovative, political and cultural moment in time. </span></span></p> <p><span class="fontstyle0"><span style="font-family: Arial;">This research is a part of the scope based theme of residence, ranging from temporary housing to major urban projects.</span></span></p> Anna Rita Emili Copyright (c) 2019 IJRDO - Journal of Social Science and Humanities Research (ISSN: 2456-2971) http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 2019-07-10 2019-07-10 4 7 24 42 HUMAN RIGHTS VERSUS FUNDAMENTAL RIGHTS FOR ANIMALS: TOWARDS A NEW CATEGORY OF RIGHTS? https://ijrdo.org/index.php/sshr/article/view/3016 <p>Human rights understood in its various senses open a new era in the 21st century to the questioning of the recognition of these same rights to non-human beings, including animals, although with specific legal protection at the international and national levels, do not have basic rights like human beings. The existing case law of the judicial decisions rendered in the United States, Argentina and India are eloquent to fuel the debate on the recognition of fundamental rights to animals. There is no doubt that animals do not have the capacity and the capacity to sue anyone, even against their counterparts for violation of any right. In this imbroglio, how can we recognize animals as holders of fundamental rights in the same way as human beings? This concern divides more than one researcher and constitutes the object of this work, which questions the probable future close to a new generation (4th generation of rights) and calls for a new legal engineering.</p> Blaise Valentin IYAMBA Augustin BEDIDJO ULAR Copyright (c) 2019 IJRDO - Journal of Social Science and Humanities Research (ISSN: 2456-2971) http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 2019-07-10 2019-07-10 4 7 43 53 The IMPLEMENTATION OF THE SCHOLARSHIP PROGRAMS AMONG THE STUDENT GRANTEES AND SCHOLARS OF KALINGA STATE UNIVERSITY https://ijrdo.org/index.php/sshr/article/view/3019 <p><em>The descriptive research looked into the implementation of the scholarship programs of the Kalinga State University.It specifically sought answers on the extent of implementation of the scholarship programs among the student grantees of Kalinga State University; the extent of the benefits derived from the scholarship programs encountered by the student grantees; and the degree of seriousness of the problems encountered by the student grantees in the implementation of the scholarship programs. Responses to the questionnaire were treated using a three-point scale, quantified through the weighted mean and further analyzed using Analysis of Variance (ANOVA). The t-Test was used to determine the significant differences along the variable of gender. The 120 student grantees of the Kalinga State University were the respondents of the study.&nbsp; It was found that the implementation of the scholarship programs by the scholars were perceived as much implemented, the scholars were moderately benefited by the scholarship programs and the problems encountered by the student grantees were moderately serious. It is recommended that the Sibling scholarship and DA-ACEF should be well- emphasized during orientation, the students should maintain the cut-off grade to enjoy their scholarship, the granting of scholarship should be based on the scholastic performance of the students, processing of scholarship papers should be improved by sponsoring agency, slots for scholarship programs should be properly disseminated, strict implementation in the implementation of scholarship grants, and the selection and approval of application should be based on the sound principle of ‘first come, first serve’ basis&nbsp; and the qualification of the applicants.</em></p> Paulino Reyes Copyright (c) 2019 IJRDO - Journal of Social Science and Humanities Research (ISSN: 2456-2971) http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 2019-07-10 2019-07-10 4 7 54 67 Note d'analyse Accord politique du centre interdiocésain de Kinshasa de Décembre 2016. https://ijrdo.org/index.php/sshr/article/view/3034 <p><strong>Résumé</strong></p> <p>Au crépuscule du deuxième et dernier mandat constitutionnel de Monsieur Joseph KABILA, la Rd Congo se calfeutre sous une crise politique aigue et généralisée. Elle est due notamment à l’absence de l’autorité de l’Etat sur une bonne partie de l’ensemble du territoire national, puis à l’expiration des mandats constitutionnels des autorités de ce quinquennat. Dans la perspective de mettre fin à cette crise et à l’impasse politique qui s’en est suivi, les forces politiques et sociales ont plus d’une fois tenté d’harmoniser leurs vues autour d’un dialogue national de crise.</p> <p>De l’appel au dialogue sous la facilitation d’EDEM KODJO à la signature, le 31 Décembre 2016, de l’Accord Global du Centre Interdiocésain de Kinshasa, rien ne sert à dissimuler que la mise en œuvre de ce dernier pose de sérieux problèmes, surtout du côté de sa cellule de suivi, au point de croire que cet engagement ne fut que déclencheur de culbutes futures.</p> <p>Dans cette note d’analyse, nous nous adonnons à noyauter dans un contexte purement de résolution à la crise constitutionnelle et à la légitimation des institutions politiques du pays, les enjeux, les problèmes et les défis à relever en regard de sa mise en œuvre.</p> <p><strong>Abstract</strong></p> <p>In the end of Mr. Joseph KABILA’s second and final constitutional term, the DRC knows an acute and widespread political crisis. The crisis is due in particular to the absence of state’s authority over a large part of the national territory, then to the expiration of the constitutional mandates of the authorities of this five-years period. In order to make an end to this crisis and the political fall in which the country was plunged, different forces agree to discuss in order to spare the nation and his people.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>From the call for dialogue under Edem Kodjo’s facilitation to the signing on 31th December 2016 of the inter diocesan’s agreement of Kinshasa, there is no point in concealing the case that its implementation poses serious problems, especially on the side of its monitoring cell, to the point of suggesting that this commitment was only triggering future conflicts.</p> <p>In this analysis note, we analyze the issues, problems and challenges that must be met in relation to its implementation.</p> Touré Maliaka Copyright (c) 2019 IJRDO - Journal of Social Science and Humanities Research (ISSN: 2456-2971) http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 2019-07-11 2019-07-11 4 7 68 76 The Effect of Resettlement on Pastoralists’ Livelihood in Somali Regional State: The Case of Hargelle Woreda. https://ijrdo.org/index.php/sshr/article/view/2703 <p><em>This study was conducted to assess and examine the effect of resettlement on resettled pastoralists’ livelihood in Hargelle. In light of this, both primary and secondary data were used. Primary data was obtained through semi-structured questionnaire, key informant interviews, focus group discussions and field observation. Secondary data was obtained from published and unpublished materials, books, journals and project reports. A total of 156 sample respondents were identified using simple random sampling technique. The study finding indicates the improvement of re-settlers’ livelihood (improvement of infrastructure, improvement of basic services and increment of income). The analysis is made at household level on the basis of both inferential and descriptive statistics. The result of multiple-regression analysis showed that the demographic features and livelihood assets had relationship with respondents’ livelihood outcomes. This situation had been observed across all demographic features and livelihood assets of the respondents. The multiple regression analysis also showed that marital status, education level, age of household, gender of household head, land size and TLU were found to be statistically significant related to the&nbsp; livelihood increment of settler population (P&lt;0.05).</em></p> Hibil Hussen Hirsi DR. Ali Hassen Copyright (c) 2019 IJRDO - Journal of Social Science and Humanities Research (ISSN: 2456-2971) http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 2019-07-13 2019-07-13 4 7 77 99 The repression of smudge perpetrated by police in congolese law https://ijrdo.org/index.php/sshr/article/view/2765 <p>In Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC), citizens worry about persistence or recrudescence of smudge phenomenon. While at juridical or theoritical level, the Congolese National Police (CNP) is among monitored and controlled public services by internal and external juridical texts.</p> <p>However, on the institutional level, the police internal control is by three organes&nbsp;:</p> <ul> <li>The General Inspection of Police represented in provinces by Provincial Antena,</li> <li>A special unity called "Police of Police" and</li> <li>Hierarchic control performed by commanders affected in different specilized unities and other constituency corps of police.</li> </ul> <p>The weaknesses of internal control which render extermely opacity in doubtet process of police repression which facililates an external control of police. Therefore, on external side, the CNP is firstly controlled by juridical institution&nbsp;: Officer of Public Minister, the administrative juridictions and military juridictions. In addition, this research paper attemps to analyze other types of external police controls, known by the DRC Constitution, which suscptible organizational strength affects positily on the process of smudge repression. There are political, social and friendly controls.</p> <p>Nevertheless, with regard to the great phenomenon of smudge of police in DRC, it is mandatory to sensitize the citizens on these diferent mecanisms quoted above which are meant to lead to repression of police smudge.</p> Emmanuel Imbwatcheke Bofonga Jean Losumbe Bondondo Copyright (c) 2019 IJRDO - Journal of Social Science and Humanities Research (ISSN: 2456-2971) http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 2019-07-13 2019-07-13 4 7 100 122