Vol 2 No 10 (2016): IJRDO - Journal of Biological Science

Adaptation Strategies to Climate Change in the Gum Arabic Belt of North Kordofan, Sudan

Awad Elkarim S.O. Khalifa
University of Kordofan, Sudan
Elamin Sanjak
University of Khartoum, Sudan
Abdelateif H. Ibrahim
University of Khartoum,
Omima A. Mirghani
Omdurman I Islamic University
Asmamaw A. A
University of Gondar, Ethiopia
Published October 31, 2016
  • Climate change,,
  • Adaption strategies,,
  • Food security,
  • Gum belt,,
  • North Kordofan
How to Cite
Khalifa, A. E. S., Sanjak, E., Ibrahim, A. H., Mirghani, O. A., & A. A, A. (2016). Adaptation Strategies to Climate Change in the Gum Arabic Belt of North Kordofan, Sudan. IJRDO - Journal of Biological Science (ISSN: 2455-7676), 2(10), 16-29. Retrieved from https://ijrdo.org/index.php/bs/article/view/1667


Climate change will, in many parts of the world, adversely affect socio-economic sectors, which
include water resources, agriculture, forestry, fisheries and human settlements, ecological systems
and human health, developing countries are the most vulnerable. During the last three decades,
North Kordofan has experienced catastrophic and frequent droughts with far-reaching
consequences on agricultural and pastoral systems, regional economy, traditional family livelihood
and environment the climate change studies in Sudan are not well – known to a lot of people. The
main objective of this paper was to investigate the climate change adaptation strategies adopted by
local communities in the gum Arabic belt of North Kordofan State (Bara Locality). It tried to
examine the impact of the climate change on agricultural production and securing food supply.
The primary data was collected through face-to-face interview with local people, group discussion
with key informants, and personal observations. A number of 140 respondents were selected
among 697 household from six villages in Bara Locality using multiple stage random sampling.
The data were analyzed using descriptive statistics, t-test and logistic regression. The main findings
of the study showed that the adaptation strategies for improving crop production were, using
improved seeds (43.6%), crop rotation (42.1%), fallow period (81.4%) and early planting (1.4%).
The adaptation strategies for food security and poverty reduction were, reducing meals (15%),
using alternative food (95%), plantation of Hyphenetheibica (11.4%) and fisheries (40%). The
adaptation strategies for livestock production and rangeland management were, using alternative
feed (94.3%), fences (35%), changing animal type (26.4%) and grass seed broadcasting to enrich
the range (39.3%). The adaptation strategies for forestry and natural resource conservation were,
expansion of A. senegal plantations (42.9%), establishment of gum Arabic production associations
(18.6%), shelterbelts (40%), energy alternatives (40.7%), change of traditional houses (74.3%) and
adoption of communal forests (10%). The results from logistic regression model revealed that
household socio-economic factors were the main determining factors that influencing farmer’
choice and adaptation strategies. The main conclusion drawn from this study is, climate change is
recognized as a real challenge for the sustainable livelihood of local communities in the study area, and the adaptation strategies taken by the local inhabitants are not enough to face such change.
This necessitates the intervention of the different governmental institutions to enhance the locally
driven adaptation options by local communities enforce a newline.


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