IJRDO - Journal of Applied Science (ISSN: 2455-6653) https://ijrdo.org/index.php/as <p>IJRDO Journal of Applied Science is an international, peer-reviewed, open access journal that welcomes high-quality research articles in all aspects of Applied Sciecne research. Subject areas include, but are not limited to the following fields: Biology, Physics, Chemistry, Pharmacy, Zoology, Health sciences, Agriculture and Forestry, Environmental sciences, Mathematics, Statistics, Animal Science, Bio Technology, Medical Sciences, Geology, Social Sciences, Natural sciences, Political Science, Urban Development, Information Technology, e-Learning, e-Commerce, Architecture, Earth Science, Archaeological Science, A deal with engineering fundamentals<br><span style="font-size: 1.5em;"><strong> <span style="color: #fcbd0f; text-shadow: #666666 0px 0px 3px;">Current Impact Factor: 2.236</span></strong></span><br><br></p> en-US <p>Author(s) and co-author(s)&nbsp;jointly&nbsp;and severally represent and warrant that the Article is original with the author(s) and does not infringe any&nbsp;copyright or violate any other right of any third parties, and that the Article has not been published&nbsp;elsewhere.&nbsp;Author(s) agree to the terms that the <strong>IJRDO Journal</strong> will have the full right to remove the published article on any misconduct found in the published article.</p> editor@ijrdo.org (Naeem Akhtar) info@ijrdo.org (Razia Khan) Thu, 02 Apr 2020 03:38:53 +0000 OJS http://blogs.law.harvard.edu/tech/rss 60 Improving Sustainable Energy Access among SC/ST Community in Chamarajanagara District of Karnataka https://ijrdo.org/index.php/as/article/view/3546 <p><em>The main objective of the project was to improve the indoor air quality among SC&amp;ST households in Chamarajanagara district, Karnataka state, through provision of clean energy solutions for cooking and lighting. This intervention was undertaken by The Energy and Resources Institute (TERI) with the support of Ministry of Science and Technology, Government of India. &nbsp;This pilot intervention comprised enhancing energy access, creating awareness and conducting training programmes and imparting technical know-how on the new technologies to village level energy entrepreneurs and end users of cook stoves and off-grid solutions among the SC/ST community. &nbsp;The project was implemented in six villages in Bhogapura Grama Panchayat (GP) in Chamarajanagara district,&nbsp;&nbsp; Karnataka state, as it is one of the backward districts and has a high SC/ST population.</em></p> <p><em>The activities included implementation of 125 integrated domestic energy systems and 300 improved forced draft cook stoves, training of local entrepreneurs / people, stakeholder awareness, user training, establishment of service center, monitoring and assessing the performance of devices and project outcomes etc., assessing the socio-economic &nbsp;status and energy usage of SC/ST households before and post implementation. </em></p> <p><em>The improved cook stove resulted in 43.90% savings in fuel wood, which translates into 366.01 tonnes of savings in fuel wood per annum and 669.79 tonnes of CO<sub>2</sub> reduction among beneficiary households. In addition, several advantages like faster cooking, less smoke, easy fuel processing, reduction in drudgery for women, reduced health risk for women were observed.&nbsp; Use of solar lights resulted in 40% savings in monthly electricity bill, reduced usage in kerosene (upto 3 litres per month) for lighting, indicating a potential to save an average of 4500 litres of kerosene per annum and reduction of 13.5 tonnes of CO<sub>2</sub>. Other outcomes included, reduced smoke, relief from eye irritation, and longer duration of light enabled extended study/ work hours. Further, the un-electrified households were able to charge their cell phone batteries. The key learning is that this project provides for a model template for rolling out such programmes in other backward regions/villages in other parts of the country</em><em>. This paper describes the methodology, socio-economic profile of the project villages, type of activities carried out and impact of the project.&nbsp; </em></p> H. H. Ninga Setty, Dr. Lasya Gopal Copyright (c) 2020 IJRDO - Journal of Applied Science (ISSN: 2455-6653) http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 https://ijrdo.org/index.php/as/article/view/3546 Thu, 02 Apr 2020 03:28:23 +0000 DOSIMETRY OF IONIZING RADIATION IN SWAMP RICE FARM IN EKOI UBOM AND EKOI IKOT NYOHO, INI LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA https://ijrdo.org/index.php/as/article/view/3558 <p><em>An assessment of absorbed surface dose rate of ionization radiation in swamp rice field in Ekoi Ubom and Ekoi Ikot Nyoho Ini Local Government Area, Akwa Ibom State, Nigeria was carried out with the aid of diligert survey meter with serial number 60030. We have noted the latitude and longitude as well as the elevation of 11 locations (LT1 to LT11) in Ini using the Global Positioning System (GPS). Contour maps have been generated using Surfer 16 software for easy interpretation. The result of highest annual equivalent dose rate computed is in LT4 with ionizing radiation level of 0.52596</em><em>µSv/yr. The mean of all locations annual average equivalent dose rate amount to (</em><em>0.242260 ± 0.035064)µSv/yr. </em><em>This value is not close to the maximum permissible dosage of 1mSv/yr and 20mSv/yr for the general public and occupational workers (farmers) in the study area respectively, meaning that the study area is not hazardous as far as nuclear radiation is concerned.</em></p> Joseph Atat, Sunday Ekpo, Akankpo A. O., Akpan, V. E., Essien, I. E. Copyright (c) 2020 IJRDO - Journal of Applied Science (ISSN: 2455-6653) http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 https://ijrdo.org/index.php/as/article/view/3558 Thu, 02 Apr 2020 03:32:51 +0000 Green synthesis and characterization of silver nanoparticles using leaf extract of aloe vera https://ijrdo.org/index.php/as/article/view/3476 <p>For this research, a novel approach has been carried out for the green synthesis of silver Nano<br>particle using leaf extract of Aloe Vera and silver nitrate solution. Stable silver nanoparticles<br>were formed by treating aqueous solution of AgNO 3 with the plant leaf extracts as reducing agent<br>of Ag + to Ag 0 . UV-visible spectroscopy was used to monitor the quantitative formation of silver<br>nanoparticles and this show a peak at 410 nm. The synthesized silver nanoparticles were<br>characterized using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and Fourier Transform Infra-red<br>Spectroscopy (FTIR). The average particle size ranged from 300 to 410 nm. The particle size<br>could be controlled by changing the reaction temperature, leaf broth concentration and AgNO 3<br>concentration. This eco-friendly method of synthesizing silver nanoparticles production provides<br>rates of synthesis which is more efficient when compared to those of chemical methods and can<br>applied in various human endeavours such as cosmetics, foods and medical applications.</p> Omotoyosi Ojonukpe, Ibrahim Olakunle shoetan Copyright (c) 2020 IJRDO - Journal of Applied Science (ISSN: 2455-6653) http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 https://ijrdo.org/index.php/as/article/view/3476 Thu, 02 Apr 2020 18:44:53 +0000 WHEAT YIELD IN MAGNETIC ANOMALIES AND BEYOND THEM https://ijrdo.org/index.php/as/article/view/3514 <p>Ambiguous, sometimes contradictory conclusions follow from literary sources related to magnetic fields effects on wheat yield. There are statements on positive effect of short-term magnetic field increase on root system development, statements on close direct (sometimes reverse) yield dependence on natural changes in the magnetic field by hundredth-thousandths of per cents. Yield decline in areas of significant positive magnetic anomalies, for example, in Kursk magnetic anomaly (<em>KMA</em>), is explained by open ore mining which led to a drop in groundwater levels by tens to hundreds meters. To assess impact of significant anomalies on yield, we analyzed regions not so prone to anthropogenic declines in groundwater levels – Bryansk, Kaluga and Orel regions, north-east parts of Kharkiv and Odessa regions with the surrounding area. It was found out that complex effect of magnetic fields (on ionization, crystallization processes, loss of ferrous compounds from solutions) causes everywhere yield declines by several times compared to neighboring areas outside of magnetic anomalies. And this is despite similarity of soil condition, orography, precipitation and agricultural efforts. Available materials on soil moisture and Normalised Difference Vegetation Index (<em>NDVI</em>) were analyzed to define the effect causes and genesis. It was found out that, in spring, soil in areas with anomaly is as moistened as in the neighboring areas, but <em>NDVI</em> pictures for anomalies are "more green" (positive effect of the magnetic field on root system development). On the contrary, by middle – end of summer, low soil moisture and gray <em>NDVI</em>, and also yield declines are observed. For irrigated fields, yields are much higher everywhere.</p> Lyushvin P.B. Copyright (c) 2020 IJRDO - Journal of Applied Science (ISSN: 2455-6653) http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 https://ijrdo.org/index.php/as/article/view/3514 Thu, 02 Apr 2020 18:50:40 +0000 Minimization of natural fires https://ijrdo.org/index.php/as/article/view/3515 <p>Annually in the mid-latitudes with the onset of heat, and in the tropics - dry season, there are massive fires. The combination of focal maps of fires with geological information in a number of regions of Russia (Moscow, Urals and Siberia), as well as in the Far East, the Mediterranean, India, North and Latin America, Tasmania) indicates the geological linking of a significant part of the fires to positive anomalies of the magnetic field and mass degassing of methane, as well as the basic connection with tides, solar and geomagnetic activity. It is assumed that in the zone of rifts of the earth’s crust there occur: activation of deep-seated channels of increased heat and mass transfer (emanation of fluids), abrupt changes in the amplitude-frequency characteristics of electromagnetic fields, ionization of air, formation of "static" minima of atmospheric humidity, reduction of precipitation, occurrence of atmospheric lineaments. Analysis of the above suggests a number of schemes for forecasting and preventing dangerous phenomena of different lead times. Recommendations are given to minimize damage from natural fires. An international action program (roadmap) is proposed, including scientific and applied research, the development of an ultra-short-term monitoring and warning system and an emergency service with technical means for eliminating foci of fires.</p> Lyushvin P.B. Copyright (c) 2020 IJRDO - Journal of Applied Science (ISSN: 2455-6653) http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 https://ijrdo.org/index.php/as/article/view/3515 Thu, 02 Apr 2020 18:51:25 +0000 IDENTIFICATION OF SITE SPECIFIC EUCALYPTUS CAMALDULENSIS CLONES FOR TIRUPATHI (ANDHRA PRADESH) BASED ON ITS PRODUCTIVITY https://ijrdo.org/index.php/as/article/view/3519 <p><em>Eucalyptus camaldulensis</em> and <em>Eucalyptus tereticornis</em> clones were shortlisted based on individual tree superiority observed in the multilocational clonal trial for growth attributes like height, girth at breast height and volume. Clonal trials were planted with commercial clones, seedlings from seed orchard, IFGTB and local seedlings during the year 2009-10 to identify the best performing and site specific clones. The clones were planted at the experimental site of Andhra Pradesh Forest Department (KFD) at Tirupathi. The growth parameters like height, girth at breast height and its volume were recorded at its half rotation (2010 to 2014). Ranking of the 22 commonly planted clones and two seed lots showed that Clone C-10 and C-19 were consistently superior in their growth performance when compared to all other clones, seed lot and the commercial clones with respect to height, girth and volume although the performance changed with each characters. Based on the study it was concluded that the clones viz., C-10 and C-19 are best suitable for the area in and around Tirupathi and also for having the same soil characteristics (sandy clay loam). The results confirm that the clones selected and tested in test environments will perform similarly in similar site conditions if deployed.</p> Vijayaraghavan Arumugam, Sivakumar Veerasamy, R.Yasodha, R.Anandalakshmi, Smitha G Nair, A.Anees, G.Suresh Copyright (c) 2020 IJRDO - Journal of Applied Science (ISSN: 2455-6653) http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 https://ijrdo.org/index.php/as/article/view/3519 Thu, 02 Apr 2020 18:52:17 +0000