IJRDO - Journal of Applied Science (ISSN: 2455-6653) https://ijrdo.org/index.php/as <p>IJRDO Journal of Applied Science is an international, peer-reviewed, open access journal that welcomes high-quality research articles in all aspects of Applied Sciecne research. Subject areas include, but are not limited to the following fields: Biology, Physics, Chemistry, Pharmacy, Zoology, Health sciences, Agriculture and Forestry, Environmental sciences, Mathematics, Statistics, Animal Science, Bio Technology, Medical Sciences, Geology, Social Sciences, Natural sciences, Political Science, Urban Development, Information Technology, e-Learning, e-Commerce, Architecture, Earth Science, Archaeological Science, A deal with engineering fundamentals<br><span style="font-size: 1.5em;"><strong> <span style="color: #fcbd0f; text-shadow: #666666 0px 0px 3px;">Current Impact Factor: 2.236</span></strong></span><br><br></p> IJRDO Journal en-US IJRDO - Journal of Applied Science (ISSN: 2455-6653) 2455-6653 <p>Author(s) and co-author(s)&nbsp;jointly&nbsp;and severally represent and warrant that the Article is original with the author(s) and does not infringe any&nbsp;copyright or violate any other right of any third parties, and that the Article has not been published&nbsp;elsewhere.&nbsp;Author(s) agree to the terms that the <strong>IJRDO Journal</strong> will have the full right to remove the published article on any misconduct found in the published article.</p> Understanding the Circulation Mechanism of Hydro Geothermal System in China https://ijrdo.org/index.php/as/article/view/2929 <p>The present study focuses on hydro geochemical characteristics and circulation mechanism of deep geothermal water in study area. Isotopic and chemistry methods have been employed to enrich the study of the geothermal system. An emphasis is put on the estimation of the exchange temperature in the deep reservoir and the residence time of the geothermal waters. A total of 23 water samples were collected, which included 13 hot water samples and 10 cold water samples. The temperature range of cold water is between 25.2 to 28.5℃, and the pH values are nearly neutral. Hydrochemical type of cold waters is mainly HCO<sub>3</sub>-Ca or HCO<sub>3</sub>·Cl- Na·Ca. Hot water temperature ranges from 42.0 to 92.7°C, and the pH is weakly alkaline. There is a trend in the hydrochemical type of hot waters which shows a change from HCO<sub>3</sub>·Cl-Na·Ca to Cl-Na type from inland to coastal areas within the studied area. We believe that Na-K-Ca geothermometer results are more accurate, and the average exchange temperature is estimated to be 171.9 °C. The hot water’s circulation depths are between 105.4 to 2329.6 m. The cold water ratio in the mixed waters is in a range of 21% ~ 89%.</p> Roksana Bannya Copyright (c) 2019 IJRDO - Journal of Applied Science (ISSN: 2455-6653) http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 2019-06-12 2019-06-12 5 6 01 38 the Factors associated with migraine among medical students at the University of Parakou (Benin) https://ijrdo.org/index.php/as/article/view/2910 <p><strong><em>Introduction:</em></strong><em> The prevalence of migraine in the student population is high with a significant impact on performance. The purpose of this study was to determine the factors associated with migraine among medical students at the University of Parakou. </em></p> <p><strong><em>Method</em></strong><em>: This is a descriptive, cross-sectional analytical study that involved medical students enrolled in the 2013-2014 academic year. The latter were subjected to a questionnaire describing the characteristics of migraine complemented by an evaluation scale. The data was analyzed by EPI Info software version 3.5.3. The Chi 2 test allowed comparisons with a significance level of 5%. </em></p> <p><strong><em>Results</em></strong><em>: A total of 209 students including 132 (63.2%) males were included. Students aged 20 to 25 accounted for 56.9% of the population. The prevalence of migraine was 13.4% (95% CI [9.1 - 18.8]). It was significantly higher among those under 18 years of age (p = 0.049), girls (p = 0.009), students living with family, guardianship or co-location (p = 0.002); during the first two years of study and at the end of the cycle (p = 0.04).</em></p> <p><strong><em>Conclusion</em></strong><em>: The prevalence of migraine in the student population is high and multifactorial etiologies; prevention measures to prevent school failure.</em></p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Gounongbe ACF Mikponhoué RCN Adoukonou T Mama Cissé I Hinson AV Djidonou A Copyright (c) 2019 IJRDO - Journal of Applied Science (ISSN: 2455-6653) http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 2019-07-01 2019-07-01 5 6 39 47 Pressure effects on the growth of Sb2Te3 thin films processed by DC and RF sputtering https://ijrdo.org/index.php/as/article/view/2950 <p><em>In this work, are compare and analyze the surface structure, morphology and electrical properties of antimony telluride (Sb<sub>2</sub>Te<sub>3</sub>) thin films grown by Direct Current (DC) and Radio Frequency (RF) magnetron sputtering system, with the variation of deposit pressure (P<sub>d</sub>) from 5 to 15 mTorr. The Sb<sub>2</sub>Te<sub>3</sub> thin films were grown with a magnetron power of 60 W, a substrate temperature of 200 °C and deposited time of 60 minutes for all samples. Profilometry measurements, X-ray Diffraction (XRD), morphology by Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM), Energy Dispersive Spectrometry (EDS) and resistivity were carried out on the Sb<sub>2</sub>Te<sub>3</sub> thin films. </em><em>XRD results show that the Sb<sub>2</sub>Te<sub>3</sub> thin films prepared by </em><em>DC sputtering system have a higher crystalline quality respect to thin films deposited by RF sputtering</em><em> and the structural properties improved by the decreasing of the deposition pressure. M</em><em>orphology results revealed that when the work pressure in both sputtering systems decreased to 5 mTorr, the grains are more compacted. EDS analyses show that the atomic composition is</em><em> approximately 35% at of Te and 65% at of Sb</em> <em>in both sputtering systems. Finally, for DC sputtering or RF sputtering systems the resistivity of the thin films decreases is close to 5.8x10<sup>-4</sup> ohm-cm. </em></p> ROGELIO MENDOZA Jorge Sastre Alfredo Del Oso María de los Ángeles Hernández Jose Lizardi Gaspar Casados Guillermo Santana Copyright (c) 2019 IJRDO - Journal of Applied Science (ISSN: 2455-6653) http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 2019-07-01 2019-07-01 5 6 48 60 Screening gelatin hydrogel and calcium alginate beads as scaffold approach for immobilization of horseradish peroxidase enzyme: Comparative operational and thermal stability study https://ijrdo.org/index.php/as/article/view/3003 <p style="margin: 0px 0px 10.66px 36px; text-align: justify; line-height: 150%; unicode-bidi: embed; direction: ltr;"><span lang="EN-US" style="background: white; margin: 0px; color: black; line-height: 150%; font-family: 'Times New Roman',serif; font-size: 14pt;">Immobilization of enzymes is a highly beneficial technique where it augments industrial process economics by allowing enzyme re-use and improving process productivity and robustness. Horseradish peroxidase (HRP) is a highly available enzyme of wide industrial applications. Calcium alginate (Ca-Alg-HRP) and gelatin (Gel-HRP) mixed gel were screened for the immobilization of (HRP) hydrogen peroxide enzyme for improvement of its industrial applications. The immobilization procedure onto Ca alginate beads was accomplished by </span><span lang="EN-US" style="background: white; margin: 0px; color: black; line-height: 150%; font-family: 'Times New Roman',serif; font-size: 14pt;">gelation method where calcium ions were used as cross-linking agent</span><span lang="EN-US" style="background: white; margin: 0px; color: black; line-height: 150%; font-family: 'Times New Roman',serif; font-size: 14pt;">. For gelatin hydrogel, </span><span lang="EN-US" style="margin: 0px; line-height: 150%; font-family: 'Times New Roman',serif; font-size: 14pt;">glutraldehyde was added to enzyme/gelatin mixture to complete cross-linking.<span style="margin: 0px;">&nbsp; </span>T</span><span lang="EN-US" style="background: white; margin: 0px; color: black; line-height: 150%; font-family: 'Times New Roman',serif; font-size: 14pt;">he effect of immobilization on the pH and temperature profile, thermal and operational stability and reusability of biocatalyst activity was assessed.<span style="margin: 0px;">&nbsp; </span>Immobilization caused a change in pH/activity profile of HRP with a marginal shift in optimum pH from 7.0 to 7.5 for free and immobilized HRP, respectively. Whereas the temperature/activity profile was improved upon immobilization. Both thermal and operational stability were enhanced as a result of immobilization. </span><span lang="EN-US" style="margin: 0px; line-height: 150%; font-family: 'Times New Roman',serif; font-size: 14pt;">The half-life of immobilized HRP at both 50°C and 70°C was found to be higher than the free enzyme with a<span style="margin: 0px;">&nbsp; </span>reported half life of 1034 min and stabilization factor of (61.5%) . </span><span lang="EN-US" style="background: white; margin: 0px; color: black; line-height: 150%; font-family: 'Times New Roman',serif; font-size: 14pt;">Reusability of the immobilized HRP was also studied and the results showed that&nbsp;both methods allowed for consecutive runs with residual catalytic activity of 80% after five successive cycles.&nbsp;</span><span lang="EN-US" style="margin: 0px; line-height: 150%; font-family: 'Times New Roman',serif; font-size: 14pt;">The suggested immobilization supports proved to provide protective effect for HRP with improved thermal and operational stability and allowed re-use and recovery of the enzyme. </span></p> Dr Heidi Abdel MAgeed Copyright (c) 2019 IJRDO - Journal of Applied Science (ISSN: 2455-6653) http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 2019-07-01 2019-07-01 5 6 61 72