IJRDO - Journal of Agriculture and Research (ISSN: 2455-7668) https://ijrdo.org/index.php/ar <p>The scope of IJRDO Journal of Agriculture &amp; Research not limited to the following subject areas: Agronomy, Entomology, Horticulture, Plant pathology, Plant Science, Fertilizers and pesticides, Genetic Engineering &amp; plant breeding, Animal scienceVeterinary Science, Aquaculture/Fisheries, Agricultural Engineering, Agricultural machinery, Post Harvest and Quality, Agricultural development, Agricultural Economics, Rural development, Sustainable Agriculture, Organic agriculture, Soil Conservation, Soil Science, Rainwater harvesting and crop water management, Crop Genetics &amp; Breeding, Tillage &amp; Cultivation Agricultural products – Raw Materials, Foods, Fibers, Fuels, Irrigation, Soil &amp; Fertilization.<br><span style="font-size: 1.5em;"><strong> <span style="color: #fcbd0f; text-shadow: #666666 0px 0px 3px;">Current Impact Factor: 2.448</span></strong></span></p> IJRDO Journal en-US IJRDO - Journal of Agriculture and Research (ISSN: 2455-7668) 2455-7668 <p>Author(s) and co-author(s)&nbsp;jointly&nbsp;and severally represent and warrant that the Article is original with the author(s) and does not infringe any&nbsp;copyright or violate any other right of any third parties, and that the Article has not been published&nbsp;elsewhere.&nbsp;Author(s) agree to the terms that the <strong>IJRDO Journal</strong> will have the full right to remove the published article on any misconduct found in the published article.</p> Effects of Climate Change induced electricity load shedding on small holder agricultural enterprises in Zambia: The case of Five Southern Province Districts https://ijrdo.org/index.php/ar/article/view/3184 <p><span class="fontstyle0">Zambia is currently facing electricity shortages, which affect the power supply throughout the<br>country. Load shedding and power outages have had effects on agricultural subsectors,<br>industries and household food security with negative implications for the productivity of the<br>country‘s economy. This paper analyses the effects of climate change induced electricity<br>power load shedding on smallholder farmers‘ agricultural productivity and production in<br>Mazabuka, Monze, Choma, Kalomo and Namwala districts of Southern Province of Zambia<br>for the 12 months period starting February 2015 through to February 2016 .<br>To gather the information needed to understand the effects and extent of load shedding and also determine whether there were differential outcomes on various enterprises, 149 structured sets of questionnaires were administered at enterprise level comprising of Dairy, Abattoir (beef), Crop irrigation, Feedlot and Poultry. Furthermore, to broaden and deepen the understanding of the effects and extent of load shedding on smallholder farmers, 17 focus group discussions were conducted with a total of 203 farmers from the same studied enterprises. Although ZESCO had released load shedding time tables for each district and for<br>each different feeder, the study reveals that some enterprises in sample area were apparently either not aware of the scheduled power cuts or ZESCO had failed to follow their programmed load shedding time table. The findings show that Monze and Namwala respectively started experiencing power cuts as early as February 2015 and March, 2015, and were the top two districts having abrupt power cuts. Many enterprises experienced reduction in the estimated average level of production during load shedding. The production level reduced by 26.6% for cattle slaughtered in abattoirs, 19.3% for steers raised for market in feedlots, 13.5% for chickens raised for market in poultry and 34.7% for quantity of milk produced in dairy (milk collection centers). On the contrary, the quantity of irrigated crop harvested increased by 18.6% during load shedding. The effects and extent of load shedding </span><span class="fontstyle0">was profound in the extra costs incurred to sustain operations of the enterprise. More than half (64.71%) of Non sole proprietors (compared to Sole proprietorship (45.26%) agree to incur more costs due to power cuts. Further, there were delivery delays from suppliers (46.3%) and to customers (46.3%) due to load shedding. As they try to adapt and mitigate the effects of load shedding on the operation of the enterprise, majority of Sole proprietorship (49.47%) and 46.15% of Non-Sole proprietorship often times reduce the expansion of the enterprise. It is also significant that stocking and use of charcoal/firewood during load shedding was often used by Sole proprietorship (61.7%) compared to 26.92% of Non-Sole proprietorship. Similarly the majority Sole proprietorship (85.26%) and Non-Sole proprietorship ( 75%) resorted to renting alternative tools/equipment to back up power during load shedding, while the highest proportion of Non-Sole proprietorship (69.23%) often resort to buying alternative tools/equipments to back up power supply. Of the assets bought/rented in as alternative power sources, charcoal/breezier became very common among the poultry enterprise while generators were common among dairy, abattoir and feedlot.</span> </p> Enock Siankwilimba Copyright (c) 2019 IJRDO - Journal of Agriculture and Research (ISSN: 2455-7668) http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 2019-09-03 2019-09-03 5 8 01 151 Structure et diversité des peuplements arborescents des sols hydromorpphes et terres fermes de Yoko en province de la Tshopo, RD Congo https://ijrdo.org/index.php/ar/article/view/3202 <p><em>The floristic structure and the specific diversity are induced by the edaphic factor and vary according to scale of investigation as well as the heterogeneity of the substrate. The present study was carrieout in Yoko (forest reserve), to evaluate and compare the diametric structure and the floristic diversity of the forests of the Congolese central basin. The sampling unit is a 300m x 150m L-shaped device. Eight 50m x 50m plots (0.25 ha) were delineated in each stand. In these plots, we surveyed and measured the circumference </em></p> <p><em>(at 1.30 m from the ground) of all trees at dhp ≥ at 10 cm. We show that the two stands are different and have significant variations in their diametric structure, richness &amp; specific diversity, and floristic composition. The results obtained can be summed up as follows: (i) diametric structure (</em><em>λ</em><em>² = 19.2; dl = 7, p &lt;0.01). The difference is significant between the diametric structures of the studied stands (ii) wealth and specific diversity (t = -3.388, dl = 14, p &lt;0.01). The difference is very significant between the studied stands. And the alpha diversity index of Fisher, </em><em>α</em><em> = 30.2 and </em><em>α</em><em> = 44 respectively of the mainland stands and those of hydromorphic soils. For any identical inventoried surface, the number of species is higher in the mainland stand for areas less than 1 ha, and lower than in the hydromorphous soil stand for areas greater than 1 ha.</em></p> LISIKO BOYEMBA LISINGO WA LISINGO BOYEMBA BOSELA. KOMBE LIBENGE Copyright (c) 2019 IJRDO - Journal of Agriculture and Research (ISSN: 2455-7668) http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 2019-09-09 2019-09-09 5 8 152 165